Miami signed the 31-year-old to a Minor League deal on Saturday with an invitation to Spring Training.
Kouzmanoff last played in the big leagues in 2011, batting .255 with three home runs and 16 RBIs in 27 games with the Rockies. He spent 2012 in the Royals' Minor League system.
Kouzmanoff broke in with the Indians in 2006, and he was a regular with the Padres from 2007-09. In 2008, he belted a career-high 23 home runs and had a personal-best 88 RBIs in '09.
In 2010, the California native was traded to the A's. Oakland then dealt him to Colorado in August 2011.
Miami also has signed right-hander Jordan Smith to a Minor League deal with a Spring Training invitation. The 26-year-old reliever was a sixth-round Draft pick of the Reds in 2006.
Smith appeared in 37 games in 2010, posting a 3-2 record and 3.86 ERA. In 2011, he made 17 appearances for Cincinnati.
The Marlins also lost the services of catcher Brett Hayes, who was claimed off waivers by the Rockies. The 28-year-old hit .202 in 39 games last season.