The 30-year-old exited Saturday's rehab game in the seventh inning due to right elbow discomfort. Oviedo is returning to Miami for further examination by team physicians.
The setback could mean he isn't ready to join the Marlins on July 23, the day his MLB-issued suspension ends.
Formerly Leo Nunez, Oviedo was suspended eight weeks for playing under a false identity.
Terms of his punishment allowed him to begin pitching in Minor League games on July 7. But he threw in a game for the first time two days later because of a stiff neck.
Oviedo pitched in two games for Class A Advanced Jupiter before being brought up to Triple-A New Orleans, where the hope was to get him facing more experienced hitters.
On Saturday night, the Zephyrs were at Oklahoma City. Oviedo faced three batters in the seventh inning, getting one out while allowing a hit and a walk before he was taken out with elbow tightness.
The Marlins are hoping to get the right-hander back in the next couple of weeks, because he would add depth to the back of the bullpen.